Working of institutions


I. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT I. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Questions within the Lesson

Page No. 80

Q.1. Is every Office Memorandum a major political decision? If not, what made this one
different?
Page No. 81

Q.2. Cartoons
Ans. No. Every Memorandum is not a major political decision. This was important because it made
the announcement of 27% reservation for SEBC class, in addition to the reservations already
there for SCs and STs.

Ans. Cartoon. It certainly has political overtones. The first one is referring to the 27% reservation

The second one refers to the same.

Q.3. Who did what in this case of reservations for backward classes?
1. Made formal announcement about this decision
2. Implemented the decision by issuing an order
3. Took the decision to give 27% job reservations
Government Officials 4. Upheld reservations as valid
4.
3.
President 1.
for the SEBC.

Page No. 82

Supreme Court

Cabinet

President

Ans.Supreme Court

Cabinet

Government Officials 2.

Page No. 82

Q.4. Which institutions are at work in the running of your school? Would it be better if one
person alone took all the decisions regarding management of your school?
Ans. No, it would not be better. Decisions arrived with consensus and advice of more than one
person are not rash or dictatorial. They are rational and considered the majority opinion.

Institutions in a school are the Managing Committee, the parents-teachers association, the
Principal and the staff.

Page No. 84

Q.5. What is the point in having so much debate and discussion in the Parliament when we
know that the view of the ruling party is going to prevail?
Ans. The ruling party, after a debate and discussion, learns about the weak points in its views. It
can modify them in the light of what it learns. If no debate is held it will not come to know
the views of the opposition or of the people, and take arbitrary decision.

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Page No. 87

Q.6. The race to become a minister is not new. Here is a cartoon depicting ministerial
aspirants waiting to get a berth in Nehru’s Cabinet after the 1962 elections. Why do you
think political leaders are so keen to become ministers?
Ans. Political leaders are keen to become ministers because of the power, prestige and financial
gains they get. Minister have many privileges, power is desired by many. If your intentions are
honourable, you can serve the nation in many ways. If not, you can misuse them for personal
gain.

Page No. 88

Page No. 90

Page No. 91

Q.7. This cartoon depicts a cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the
early 1970s, at the peak of her popularity. Do you think similar cartoons could be drawn
about other prime ministers who followed her?
Ans. No. None of the Prime Ministers who followed her had the same status or power as Indira
Gandhi had in the early 1970s.

Q.8. What is better for a democracy-a Prime Minister who can do whatever he wishes or a
Prime Minister who needs to consult other leaders and parties?
Ans. The second option is indeed better in a democracy, otherwise we would end up with a dictator.

Q.9. It is quite common in the US for judges to be nominated on the basis of well-known
political opinions and affiliations. This fictitious advertisement appeared in the US in
2005 when President Bush was considering various candidates for nomination to the US
Supreme Court. What does this cartoon say about the independence of the judiciary?
Why do such cartoons not appear in our country? Does this demonstrate the
independence of our judiciary?
Ans. The cartoon is definitely making fun of President Bush! It clearly states that judiciary is not
independent in USA and judges will be chosen if they support Bush and his policies!

No such cartoon has ever appeared against the Indian judiciary which speaks a lot about the
independence of judicial system in India. They are free from dominance of the Executive.

Page No. 92

Q.10. Why are people allowed to go to courts against the government’s decisions?
Ans. People are allowed to go against the government to courts, because of the fundamental right
given to them by the Constitution — Right to Constitutional Remedies. If any of the people’s

fundamental rights is violated we can challenge the decision in court and ask for justice.

Questions in the Exercise

Q.1. If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take
on your own?
(a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
(b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in Lok Sabha.
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
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(d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.
Ans. (c) Ask for reconsideration of a Bill passed by both the Houses.
Q.2. Who among the following is a part of the political executive?
(a) District Collector (b) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
(c) Home Minister (d) Director General of Police
Ans. (c) Home Minister
Q.3. Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false?
(a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court.
(b) Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution.
(c) Judiciary is independent of the Executive.
(d) Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated.
Ans. (a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court.
Q.4. Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country?
(a) The Supreme Court
(b) The President
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) The Parliament
Ans. (d) The Parliament
Q.5. Match the ministry with the news that the ministry may have released:
(a) A new policy is being made to increase (1) Ministry of Defence
the jute exports from the country.
(b) Telephone services will be made more (2) Ministry of Health
accessible to rural areas.
(c) The price of rice and wheat sold under the (3) Ministry of Agriculture, Food and
Public Distribution System will go down. Public Distribution
(d) A Pulse Polio campaign will be launched. (4) Ministry of Commerce and Industry
(e) The allowances of the soldiers posted on (5) Ministry of Communications and
high altitudes will be increased. Information Technology

Ans. (a) — (4); (b) — (5); (c) — (3); (d) — (2); (e) — (1)

Q.6. Of all the institutions that we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises
the powers on each of the following matters.
(a) Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation, etc.,
and different welfare activities for the citizens
(b) Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange
(c) Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments
(d) Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake.
Ans. (a) The Executive (political), the government
(b) The Parliament (The Lok Sabha)
(c) The Supreme Court, judiciary
(d) The Executive (Permanent), Civil Servants
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Q.7. Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most
appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice.
(a) In a parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can
become the Prime Minister.
(b) Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Minister even before the
expiry of their term.
(c) Since the Prime Minister in appointed by the President, there is no need for it.
(d) Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve a lot of expenditure on election.
Ans. (a) Elections are not fought for the post of the Prime Minister. Only parties fight elections and
the winning party’s leader becomes the Prime Minister.

Q.8. Three friends went to watch a film that showed the hero becoming Chief Minister for a
day and making big changes in the state. Imran said this is what the country needs.
Rizwan said this kind of a personal rule without institutions is dangerous. Shankar said
all this is a fantasy. No minister can do anything in one day. What would be your reaction
Ans. Leave it for the students to answer.

Q.9. A teacher was making preparations for a mock parliament. She called two students to act
as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to
have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice
was given to you, which one would you choose and why?
Ans. Again, the choice rests with the students
Lok Sabha — Power with responsibility — can do good.
Rajya Sabha — Prestige, power without too much responsibility, longer tenure.

Q.10. After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions
about the role of the judiciary. Which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the
(a) Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not
to such a film?

role of judiciary?

independent.

(b) Anjaiah says that judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against
the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.
(c) Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a
mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance those who supported
and those who opposed the order.
Ans. Leave it to the students to decide.

OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (AS PER CCE PATTERN)


B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS [1 MARKS]
Q.1. What is meant by ‘Office Memorandum’?
(a) Order issued by the Government of India (b) Memoirs of the leaders of the past
(c) Important defence documents (d) None of the above
Ans. (a)
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Q.2. When was the Second Backward Class Commission appointed?
(a) 1989 (b) 1979 (c) 1999 (d) 2001
Ans. (b)
Q.3. Why did people react strongly to the Mandal Commission Report?
(a) It left out many backward communities (b) It affected thousands of job opportunities
(c) Some high castes wanted to be included in it
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (b)
Ans. (b)

Q.4. What do the Civil Servants do?
(a) They take important policy decisions (b) They implement the ministers’ decisions
(c) They settle the disputes (d) None of the above
Q.5. What is ‘Parliament’?
(a) Assembly of elected representatives at the national level
(b) A body consisting of appointed ministers
(c) Body comprising judges (d) Assembly of only appointed members
Q.6. Which of these are correct so far as powers of the Parliament are concerned, apart from
(a) Exercising control over the government (b) Controlling finance of the country
(c) Serving as the highest forum of discussion and debate
Q.7. Apart from Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, who else constitutes the Parliament?
(b) Chief Minister (c) Governor (d) President
Q.8. What happens if there is a difference of opinion between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
Ans. (a)

making laws?

(d) All the above
Ans. (d)
(a) Prime Minister
Ans. (d)

over an ordinary bill?

(a) The President decides the matter
(c) There is a joint sitting of the two Houses (d) The bill is cancelled
Q.9. For how long can the Rajya Sabha delay a Money Bill?
(a) 15 days (b) 1 month
(b) The will of Rajya Sabha prevails
Ans. (c)

(c) 3 months (d) 14 days
Ans. (d)

Q.10. Who is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha?
(a) Speaker (b) Vice President (c) President (d) Prime Minister
Ans. (a)
Q.11. Two features of Indian judicial system are:
(a) Independent Judiciary (b) Integrated Judiciary
(c) Dependent Judiciary (d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d)
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Q.12. Which of these disputes can the Supreme Court take?
(a) Between citizens of the country (b) Between citizens and the government
(c) Between two or more state governments (d) All the above
Ans. (d)
Q.13. Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts?
(a) President, according to his own wishes (b) President, on the advice of the PM
(c) President on the advice of the PM in consultation with the Chief Justice of India
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c)

Q.14. How can a judge of the Supreme Court be removed?
(a) By the Supreme Court itself (b) By the Parliament through impeachment
(c) By the President alone (d) By the Police
Q.15. What is the power of the Supreme Court to judge the constitutional validity of a law
passed by the Parliament or an action of the Executive called?
(a) Judicial Revision (b) Judicial Review (c) Judicial Consent (d) Judicial Permission
Q.16. Which of the following institutions can make changes to the existing law of the country?
(a) The Supreme Court (b) The President
(c) The Prime Minister (d) The Parliament
Q.17. What does the Supreme Court say over the Parliament’s power of amendment of the
(a) Parliament can amend the entire Constitution
(b) Parliament can amend only the basic structure of the Constitution
(c) Parliament cannot amend the basic structure of the Constitution
Ans. (b)

Ans. (b)

Ans. (d)

Constitution?

(d) None of the above
Q.18. Which body acts as the guardian of Fundamental Rights?
(a) District Courts
(c) Election Commission
Ans. (c)

(b) Supreme Court
(d) Legislature
Ans. (b)

Q.19. What is a Public Interest Litigation? [Important]
(a) Filing a case in the court in the interest of the public
(b) Reviewing of Supreme Court judgements
(c) Procedure of removal of a judge (d) None of the above
Ans. (a)
Q.20. What are the two types of ‘Executives’ in India?
(a) Political Executive (b) Permanent Executive
(c) Judicial Executive (d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d)
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Q.21. Why does the political executive have more powers than the permanent executive?
(a) Because hardly any expertise is required in taking policy decisions
(b) Because political executive consists of the direct representatives of the people
(c) Political leaders are more educated (d) None of the above
Ans. (b)
Q.22. Who holds the most important and powerful position in the government? [Important]
(a) President (b) Vice President (c) Prime Minister (d) Speaker
Ans. (c)
Q.23. Whom does the President appoint as the Prime Minister?
(b) Leader of the majority party
(c) MP who has secured the largest number of votes
(d) None of the above
Q.24. What is the tenure of office of the Prime Minister?
(b) 6 years
(c) As long as he wants (d) He does not have a fixed tenure
Q.25. What is the government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties called?
(a) Cooperation government (b) Coalition government
(c) Consensus government (d) Cooperative government
Q.26. Who among the following is a part of the political executive?
(b) District Collector
(c) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
(d) Director General of Police
Q.27. Which organ of the government has the power to interpret the Constitution?
(c) High Court (d) Both (a) and (c)
(a) Anyone he likes
Ans. (b)

(a) 5 years
Ans. (d)

Ans. (b)

(a) Home Minister
Ans. (a)

(a) Supreme Court (b) District Court
Q.28. About how many ministers are there in the Cabinet?
(a) 80 (b) 60
Ans. (a)

(c) 20 (d) 10
Ans. (c)

Q.29. Which of these options is/are correct regarding the powers of the Prime Minister?
(a) He chairs the Cabinet meetings
(b) He distributes work to the different departments
(c) He can dismiss ministers (d) All the above
Ans. (d)
Q.30. What is the position of the President?
(a) Nominal head of the state (b) Real head of the state
(c) Hereditary head of the state (d) None of the above
Ans. (a)
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Q.31. Which of the following statements is not true? [CBSE 2010]
(a) The Judiciary safeguards the laws (b) The Legislature implements the laws
(c) The political executives are more powerful than the permanent executives
(d) The permanent executives comprises the civil servants
Ans. (b)
Q.32. The Council of Ministers at the centre is responsible to : [CBSE 2010]
(a) The President (b) The Prime Minister
(c) The Rajya Sabha (d) The Lok Sabha
Ans. (d)
Q.33. The president of India is elected by [CBSE 2010]
(a) Direet Election by citizens ... 18 yers of age
(b) Indirect Election by the Electoral College
(c) The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers
(d) None of the above
Q.34. President of India is : [CBSE 2010]
(a) Head of the Government (b) Head of the State
(c) Head of the parliament (d) None of the above
Q.35. The judges of Supreme Court are appointed by : [CBSE 2010]
(b) Prime Minister (c) Chief Justice (d) Law Minister
C. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]
Q.1. State how the delays and complications introduced by the institutions are very useful in
[Important]
Ans. Working with institutions involve rules and regulations, meetings, committees and routines,
often leading to delays and complications. But some of these delays are very useful as they
provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decision. They make

Ans. (b)

Ans. (b)

(a) President
Ans. (a)

a democracy.

it difficult to rush through a bad decision.

Q.2. Even though civil servants are far more educated and have expert knowledge on various
subjects, why does the ultimate power to decide matters lie with the ministers?
Ans. A minister is elected by the people and thus empowered to exercise the will of the people on

[Important]

their behalf. She is finally answerable to the people for all the consequences of her/his
decision. The Minister is not expected to be an expert in the technical matters of her or his
ministry. The civil servants, though far more educated, work under these ministers, and the
final decisions are taken by the ministers.

Q.3. Who appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, and on what basis?
Ans. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. But he cannot appoint anyone he likes. He
appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of the parties that commands a
majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister. In case no single party or alliance gets a
majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure a majority support.

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Q.4. In which way do the cabinet ministers exercise more powers than the other ministers?
Ans. Cabinet ministers are the top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties, and are in charge
of the major ministries. Ministers of state with independent charge are on the other hand
usually in-charge of smaller ministeries. The decisions are taken in cabinet meetings and the
other ministers have to follow these decisions. They attend the cabinet meeting only if they
are invited.

Q.5. How has the rise of coalition politics imposed constraints on the power of the Prime
Minister?
Ans. The Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decisions as he likes. He has to
accommodate different groups and factions in his party as well as among alliance partners. He
also has need to the views and positions of the coalition partners and other parties, on whose
support the survival of the government depends.

Q.6. Why is an independent and powerful judiciary considered essential for democracies?
Ans. Independence of the judiciary is essential in a democracy so that it does not act under the
control and direction of the legislature or the executive. The judges do not act according to the
wishes of the government, i.e. the party in power. Indian Judiciary is powerful in the sense that
it can declare only law invalid if it is against the constitution. Thus Indian judiciary acts as
a guardian of the Fundamental Rights which is essential for a democracy.

Q.7. What is the procedure for the removal of the judges?
Ans. The procedure to remove a judge is called impeachment. An impeachment motion is passed
separately by two thirds members of the two Houses of the Parliament. Thus the judges who
are appointed by the President cannot be removed by the President alone. Both Lok Sabha and
Rajya Sabha have to pass a resolution by two-thirds majority to remove a judge.

Q.8. Discuss the powers and functions of the Parliament. [CBSE 2010]
Ans. Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the country. It can also change laws and
make new ones in their place. It exercises contral over those who run the government. In India
this contral is direct and full. If also controls all the money that the government has. It is the
highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policies.

Q.9. Explain the composition of the council of ministers.
Ans. After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the President appoints other ministers on the
advice of the Prime Minister. The ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has
the majority in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as long as they
are members of parliament. Council of ministers is the official name for the body that includes

[2011 (T-2)]


all the ministers. It usually has 60 to 80 ministers of different rank.

Q.10. Write about the process of appointment and removal of a judge of Supreme Court.
[2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the
advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
In practice the senior judges of the Supreme Court select the new judges of the Supreme Court.
A judge can be removed only by an impeachment motion passed separately by two-third
members of the two houses of the Parliament.

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Q.12. Under what condition can a state of emergency be declared in India? Explain.
[2011 (T-2)]
Ans. A state of emergency can be declared under the following conditions:

(i) Increase of external aggression or armed rebellion;
(ii) It the government machinery of a state breaks down;
(iii) If there is a threat to the financial stability of the country. Under these circumstances the
President can impose a state of emergency and this is called President rule.
Q.13. Which house of the parliament is more powerful in India and why? Give any four
[2011 (T-2)]

Ans. Rajya Sabha is called the Upper House but that does not mean that it is more powerful than
Lok Sabha. Our constitution does not give Rajya Sabha same special powers over the states.
But on most matters the Lok Sabha exercises supreme power.

(i) Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both Houses. The final decision is taken in a joint
session but as number of Lok Sabha members is greater, the view of the Lok Sabha
(ii) Lok Sabha exercises more power in money matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget
the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. It can hold it only for 14 days.
(iii) Lok Sabha controls the council of ministers. A person who enjoys the support of the
majority members in the Lok Sabha is appointed the Prime Minister.
(iv) If majority members of the Lok Sabha say they have no confidence in the council of
ministers all ministers including the Prime Minister have to quit.
Q.14. Why are political institutions important? Give any three points.
Ans. Governing a country involves various activities. For attending to all these activities/tasks
several arrangements are made. Such arrangements are called institutions. A democracy works
well when these Institutions perform these functions.

(i) The Prime Minister and the cabinet are institutions.
(ii) The civil servants working together are responsible for taking steps to implement the
reasons of it.

prevails.

[2011 (T-2)]


ministers decisions.

(iii) Supreme Court is an institution where disputes between citizens are finally settled.
Q.15. Give three differences between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
Ans. Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. Lok Sabha
power on behalf of the people. Rajya Sabha is elected indirectly and performs some special
functions. Like looking after the interests of various states, regions or federal units. In some

[2011 (T-2)]


exercises the real

ways Lok Sabha is more important as it has more members and in any decision making, its
opinion prevails – it controls council of ministers.

Q.16. What is the tenure of the President in India? Mention the qualifications for President of
India. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The President in India is the head of the state. He has only nominal powers. The President of
India is like the Queen of Britain whose functions are to a large extent ceremonial. The
President supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country. The
President exercises all his powers on the advice of the council of ministers. His tenure is for
five years.

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Q.17. Under what circumstances does the President exercise his discretion in the appointment
of the Prime Minister? Who appoints the other ministers? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. When a party or coalition of parties secures a clear majority in the elections, the President has
to appoint the leader of the majority party or the coalition that enjoys majority support in the Lok
Sabha. When no party or coalition gets a majority in the Lok Sabha President exercises his/her
discretion and appoints a leader who in his/her opinion can muster majority support in the Lok
Sabha within a specified time.

Q.18. What is a coalition government? Why the Prime Minister of a coalition government
cannot take decisions as he likes? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The rise of coalition politics has imposed certain constraints on the power of the Prime
Minister. The Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decision as he likes. He
has to accommodate different groups and factions in his party as well as among alliance
partners. He also has to heed to the views and positions of the coalition partners and other
parties on whose support the survival of the government depends.

Q.19. What are the powers of the Prime Minister? Describe any three.
[2011 (T-2)]
Ans. As the head of the government the Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers.
(i) He chairs cabinet meetings
(ii) He coordinates the work of different Departments.
(iii) He exercises general supervision of different ministries. He can and does dismiss
ministers. When the Prime Minister quits the entire ministry quits.
Q.20. ‘‘Parliament is the supreme legislature of India.’’ Justify the statement. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. In all democracies, an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority
on behalf of the people. In India, such a national assembly of elected representatives is called
Parliament. At the state level, it is called Legislature or Legislative Assembly. Parliament is the
final authority for making laws in any country. Parliaments all over the would can make new
laws, change existing laws or abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.

D. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [4 MARKS]
Q.1. What was the reaction of the people to the implementation of Mandal Commission
Report?
Ans. The implementation of the Mandal Commission Report led to widespread protests and counter-
protests, some of which were violent. People reacted strongly because this decision affected
thousands of job opportunities. Some felt that job reservations were essential to cope up with
the inequalities among people of different castes in India. Others felt that this was unfair as

it would deny equality of opportunity to people who did not belong to the backward
communities. They would be denied jobs even if they were more qualified.

Q.2. Write about some of the activities involved in governing a country.
Ans. Governing a country involves various activities. For example, the government is responsible for
ensuring security to the citizens and providing facilities for education and health to all. It collects
taxes and spends the money thus raised on administration, defence and development programmes.
It formulates and implements several welfare schemes. Some persons have to take decisions on
how to go about these activities. Others have to implement these decisions. It is also important
that these activities keep taking place even if the persons in key positions change.

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Q.3. In which ways does the Parliament exercise political authority on behalf of the people?
Ans.
(i) Parliament can make new laws, change existing laws, or abolish existing laws and make
new ones in their place.

(ii)
Those who run the government can take decisions only so long as they enjoy support of
the Parliament.
(iii) Parliament controls all the money that government has. Public money can be spent only
when the Parliament sanctions it.
(iv) Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national
policy.

Q.4. Describe the ways in which Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.
[Important]
(i) An ordinary law has to pass through both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. In case of differences,
a joint session is held. Since Lok Sabha has larger number of members will prevail.
(ii)
Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters. Once it passes the budget or the
money bills, the Rajya cannot reject it. It can delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in
it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.
(iii)
Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. If the majority of Lok Sabha members say
they have no confidence in the Council of Ministers, all ministers including the Prime
Minister, have to quit. Rajya Sabha does not have this power.
Q.5. How can you say that the President occupies the position of a nominal head of the State?
Ans. The President is not elected directly by the people. She or he can never claim the kind of direct
popular mandate that the Prime Minister can. This ensures that she or he remains only a
nominal executive. The Constitution gives vast powers to the President. But the latter exercises
them only on the advice of the Council of Ministers. The President can ask the Council of
Ministers to reconsider its advice. But if the same advice is given again, she or he is bound
to act according to it. Similarly, when a bill comes to the President for signatures she or he
can return it to the Parliament with her or his advice but when the bill comes for her signatures
again, she or he has to sign it, whether the Parliament agrees to her / his advice or not.

Ans.

Q.6. What are the powers of the Supreme Court?
Ans. The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration of the country. Its decisions are binding
on all other courts of the country. It can take up any dispute


Between citizens of the country;

between citizens and government;

between two or more state governments;

between governments at the union and state level.
It is the highest court of appeal in civil and criminal cases. It can hear appeals against the
decisions of the High Courts. The Supreme Court has the power to interpret the Constitution of the
country. It can determine the constitutional validity of any law. This is known as judicial review.
Q.7. Write any three powers of the Prime Minister?
[CBSE 2010]
Ans. The Prime Minister is the most important political institution in the country. He/ She has wide
ranging powers.

(i) He chairs cabinet meetings.
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(ii) His decisions are final in case of disagreement between departments.
(iii) He distributes and redistributes work to ministers. He also has power to dismiss ministers.
When the Prime Minister quits, the entire ministry quits. Thus within the cabinet the Prime
Minister is the most powerful so much so that parliamentary democracies are sometimes seen
as prime ministerial form of government.
Q.8. Write two ways in which it can be proved that the President does not have any real
powers. What can the President really do on his/her own? [CBSE 2010]
Ans. In our political system the head of the state exercises only nominal powers. The President of
India is like the Queen of Britain whose functions are to a large extent ceremonial. The

President supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country so

that they operate in harmony to achieve the objectives of the state.
The President represents the entire nation but can never claim the kind of direct popular
mandate that the Prime Minister can. The same is true of his powers. All government activities
do take place in the name of the President. All laws and major decisions of the government
are issued in his name, all international treaties and agreements are made in his name but the
President exercises these powers only on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

Q.9. Explain the difference between Political Executive and Permanent Executive. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. In a democratic country two types of executives are there. ‘‘One that is elected by the people
for a specific period, it is called the political executive. Political leaders who take big decisions
fall into this category. In the second category people are appointed on a long-term basis. This
is called the permanent executive or civil services. Persons working in civil services are called
civil servants. They remain in office even when the ruling changes. These officers work under

Q.10. In what ways does the Parliament exercise political authority? Explain. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country. This task of law making or
legislation is so crucial that these assemblies are called legislatures. Parliaments all over the
world exercise some control over these who run the government. In some countries like Inida
this control is direct and full. Those who run the government can take decisions only, so long
as they enjoy support of the Parliament. Parliaments control all the money that governments

political executive.

have. Parliament is the highest forum of discussion.

Q.11. Describe any four constitutional provisions for making judiciary independent.
Ans. Independence of the judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the
executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes
of the party in power. There is very little scope for the ruling party to interfere.

[2011 (T-2)]


(i) The appointment of judges of Supreme Court and High Courts is done by the President
on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court.
(ii) Once a person is appointed as judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court, it is
impossible to removed him.
(iii) The judiciary in India is one of the most powerful in the world. The Supreme Court and
the High Courts have the power to interpret the constitution of the country.
(iv) They can declare invalid any law of the legislative or the actions of the executive whether
at the Union level or at the State level.
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Q.12. How is the judicial system organised in India? Mention its major function. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. An independent and powerful judiciary is considered essential for democracies. All the courts
at different levels in a country put together are called the judiciary. The Indian judiciary
consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, district courts and
the courts at the local level. India has an integrated judiciary. It means the Supreme Court
controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts
of the country. It is the highest court of appeal in civil and criminal cases.

Q.13. Why is the Prime Minister the most powerful man in the government? Explain.
[2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers as head of the government. He chairs
meetings, coordinates the work of different departments. His decisions are final. All ministers
work under him/his leadership. He distributes and redistributes work to the ministers. He also
has the power to dismiss them and when he quits the entire ministry quits. The Prime Minister
controls the cabinet and the Parliament through the party.I
I. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. PROJECT
How a major policy decision is taken by the Union government.
Developing critical awareness about functioning of the political and
permanent executive of the country.
Analytical understanding of how the government functions; role and
responsibility of a citizen.
2–3 days.


(a) Collect information about a major decision taken by the Union
government recently. You can visit the concerned ministry and
request for giving relevant information.
cabinet

Topic Covered

:


Objective

:


Skills Developed

:


Time Required

:


Method

:


(b) Read the textbook again and follow the steps given regarding the
implementation of the Mandal Commission recommendations.
(c) Conclusion : In conclusion, give your own views : Is it necessary to
follow the rules/procedures?
B. ACTIVITIES
(1) When the Parliament is in session, there is a special programme every day on Doordarshan
about the proceedings in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Watch the proceedings for a week and/
or read about it in the newspapers and note the following : (a) Powers of the two Houses of
Parliament – Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha (b) Role of the Speaker in case of Lok Sabha and
that of the Chairperson in case of Rajya Sabha (c) Role of the Opposition.
(2) Follow the news about a major court case in the High Court of your state. What was the verdict
of the High Court? Did it reverse the decision of the District Court? Why/Why not? Did the
convict appeal in the Supreme Court?
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C. ASSIGNMENTS
(1) Collect newspapers for the last one week, clip out
news items and classify them into four groups : (a)
working of the legislatures (b) working of the
political executive (c) working of the civil services
(d) working of the judiciary.
(2) Suppose you are made the Chief Minister of your
state for a week. Which important decisions will you
take? List your decisions and give reasons for each

(3) Study the given cartoon and comment on its theme.
Express your own views also.
(In this cartoon, the then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal
Nehru is finalising the list of Council of Ministers
after the 1962 elections.)



(4) Study the given cartoon and comment on its theme. Explain your own views regarding the
theme. (This cartoon shows a cabinet meeting chaired by the then Prime Minister, Indira
Gandhi in the early 1970s, when she was very powerful and popular.)
decision.


Organise a mock session of Lok Sabha in the classroom.

D. MOCK ACTIVITY
(Guidelines : The teacher would inform the students three days before the session. He/she
would select opposition leaders, cabinet ministers, PM, Speaker, other officials from among the
students. The topic of debate of the bill to be passed has to be discussed in advance.)

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